Ringkasan Kimia Bab IV: Kimia Unsur

Halogens (X)

  1. General Properties
    • pure @ nature
    • DOWN THE GROUP
      • radius ↑ → size X > X
      • electronegativity ↓ → F is the most electronegative element (4.0)
      • e affinity ↓
      • melting & boiling points ↑ (X2-X2)
      • metallic properties ↑
      • bond energy ↓ (X-X)
  2. As Oxidising Agents
    • cause oxidation → other’s oxidation number ↑
    • experienced reduction → takes e
    • Down the group
      • oxidising power ↓
      • reducing power ↑
  3. Hydrogen Halides (HX)
    • colourless gases
    • HF beda sendiri (karena hydrogen bond)
    • Down the group
      • reactivity w/ H ↓
      • melting & boiling points ↑
      • degree of polarization ↓
      • thermal stability ↓ (ability to decompose)
      • α in water ↑ → acid strength ↑
  4. Oxo-Acids of Chlorine
    HClO
    HClO2
    HClO3
    HClO4



    Ka/α ↑
    acid strength ↑
  5. Production of Chlorine
    • Mercury-Cathode Cell
    • Diaphragm Cell

Transition Elements

  • d-block elements → last e– @ d
  • 4s close with 3d → lots of oxidation numbers (all e– can go out)
  • colorful → energy gap in d-subshells (forever going through excitation)
  • catalysts

[COMPLEX IONS]

L
L → M ← L

L

L = ligands: at least 1 lone e– pair

ammine NH3
carbonyl CO
aqua H2O
cyanide CN
nitro NO2

NOMENCLATURE (prefix ligand center (bilox M))

  • prefix: mono-di-tri-tetra…
  • ligand: -o
  • center: (depends on whether the whole complex ion is + / -)
– (+ ate) +/neutral
Cr chromate chromium
Cu cuprate cuprum
Au Aurate Aurum
Fe Ferrate Ferrum/Iron

Examples

[Ni(CO)4] tetracarbonylnickel(0)
[Co(NH3)4Cl2)+ tetraaminedichlorocobalt
K3[Fe(CN)6] potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)
[Cr(NH3)4Cl2]Cl tetraaminedichlorochromium(III) chloride

Al-Si-N-C

Aluminium (Al)

  • @ nature → found in bauxite Al2O3.xH2O
    • ada hidrate (xH2O) → needs purification
  • How to obtain: Hall-Héroult Process
    • + NaOH + heat pressure → 2NaAl(OH)4(aq)
    • dilute 2NaAl(OH)4(aq) → Al(OH)3 + NaOH(aq)
    • filtered → Al(OH)3
    • heated → Al2O3 powder
    • electrolysis (Al @ cathode)
  • Uses
    • cooking utensils & aluminium foil (↑ heat resistance)
    • campuran kabel (enteng)
    • catalyst
    • in cleaning water

Silicon (Si)

  • @ nature
    • silica (SiO2)
    • silicates (Si – O – other metals)
    • silicate ion (SiO44-)
  • How to obtain → reduction method from compounds
  • Uses
    • silicone (polymer w/ oxide etc) → implants
    • electronic components (high conductivity) → transistors, solar cells
    • raw material for glass & ceramics (+ Ti → bulletproof glass)
    • asbestos → heat-resistant clothing (insulator)

Nitrogen (N)

  • @ nature → air, living organisms
  • How to obtain
    • Industry
      • liquidify air (compress-expand-compress-expand)
      • fractional distillation
      • result: banyak impurities of noble gases
    • Lab → pure N2 ✓ → expensive
  • Uses
    • ammonia → pupuk, synthetic fiber
    • Nitric(V) acid → TNT, pupuk
    • N2 as inert gas → u/ makanan kemasan
    • N2 cair → dinginin es

Carbon (C)

  • @ nature → coal, gas bumi
  • How to obtain
    • heat CH4 (gas bumi) → C & 2H2
    • heat (vacuum) batu bara (C-C-C)
  • Allotropes (penyusunnya sama-sama carbon → beda properti)
    • graphite
      • hexagonal layer
      • secara energy: highly stable
    • diamond
      • tetrahedral covalent bond
      • unstable energy → will eventually change into graphite

Radioactive

  • alami → atom number > 83
  • radioisotopes → bisa jadi radioactive
  • uses
    • health → zat perunut (tracker)
    • energy → PLTN (little space needed)
  • bad effects: radiation

NUCLEAR EQUATIONS

Screen Shot 2013-12-07 at 11.42.37 AM Screen Shot 2013-12-07 at 11.43.54 AM

TRANSMUTATION

Screen Shot 2013-12-07 at 11.49.37 AM Screen Shot 2013-12-07 at 11.50.29 AM

HALF LIFE (T½)

Screen Shot 2013-12-07 at 11.56.15 AM

USES

  1. Medicine → tracer (Na-24), sterilization, cancer & tumor treatment
  2. Agriculture → infertilize pests, breeding plants (diff radiation treatments), preservation
  3. Industry & Energy → PLTN & tracer

NUCLEAR FISSION vs NUCLEAR FUSION

  • Nuclear Fission: n hits U → Sr + Xe + 3n → etc
  • Nuclear Fusion ☼ @ 100 000 000 ℃

Blueaholic is listening to: Taeyang – RINGA LINGA

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