Ringkasan Biologi Bab II: Sistem Gerak & Koordinasi

Otot

Bekerja secara antagonis –> kontraksi & relaksasi

Jenis otot:

  1. Polos
    • @ involuntary organs
    • bentuk gelendong
    • 1 inti sel di tengah
    • otot tidak sadar
  2. Myocardium
    • @ jantung & vena cava
    • involuntary
    • mirip otot rangka, tapi inti sel hanya 1
  3. Rangka/Lurik
    • voluntary
    • melekat pada tulang
    • 1 sel = 1 serabut otot
    • berinti banyak
    • panjang
    • silindris

002 - myofibrils

Protein strands actin & myosin are myofilaments

002 - myofilaments

002 - tropoduo

Sliding-Filament Model

002 - musclestructureSource

  • Neoromuscular junction gives impulse (Action Potential)
  • ER (SR) release Calcium ions
  • Actin shift
  • Myosin heads bind
  • ADP released from myosin
  • Power Stroke
  • ATP binds to myosin head
  • Detatch
  • Muscles Contract
  • Movement

Power Stroke

002 - powerstroke1Calcium ions attach to troponin

002 - powerstroke2Troponin shifts, leaving the binding site open

002 - powerstroke3 Myosin heads bind to the actin

002 - powerstroke4 Power stroke

Action Potential

002 - actpot1
  •  Cell is at rest
 STIMULUS HAPPENS
002 - actpot2002 - actpot3
  • Sodium ions rush in
  • Other sodium pumps open
002 - actpot4
  •  Voltage is reversed
002 - actpot5
  • Potassium gates open
  • Potassium goes out
002 - actpot6
  • Voltage is normal again
  • Potassium & Sodium ions kebalik
002 - actpot7
  • Na-K pumps get back to work
RESTING POTENTIAL

The axon structure has gaps called the Nodes of Ranvier. Because of this, the action potential travels along the myelin sheaths and jumps from sheath to sheath –> saltatory conduction

Synapse at Neuromuscular Junctions

002 - neuromuscular_junction
Source

  • Impulse arrives at axon terminal
  • Calcium channels open
  • Calcium enters axon terminal
  • Vesicles inside axon terminal exocytosis –> release acetylcholine
  • Acetylcholine binds to its receptors: ligand-gated cation channels
  • Channel opens –> sodium ions go in, potassium ions go out
  • Action potential

Asetil colin dibalikin

  1. via difusi
  2. via enzim (asetil colinase)
    • dipecah menjadi asam asetil & colin
    • colin + asetil CoA (dari Krebs cycle) + ATP = asetil colin

Coordinating System

002 - neuron

Gerak Biasa vs Gerak Refleks

  • Reseptor
  • Neuron sensorik
  • Pusat saraf
  • Neuron motorik
  • Efektor
  • Reseptor
  • Neuron sensorik
  • Neuron konektor
  • Neuron motorik
  • Efektor

Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System

002 - cns pns

CNS vs PNS

  • Berpikir & Menganalisis
  • Mengirimkan perintah
  • Menerima rangsangan dari luar
  • Melaksanakan perintah

Bagian CNS

002 - brain-answersSource

Bagian Letak Fungsi
Medula Oblongata
(sumsum lanjutan)
Otak bagian belakang
#9
  • Instinct
  • Involuntary Processes
    • Respirasi
    • Sirkulasi
    • Jantung
    • Menelan
Otak Kecil
(cerebellum)
Bagian anterior dari medula oblongata
#6
  • Pusat keseimbangan
  • Koordinasi motorik
Otak Tengah
(mesensefalon)
Di atas jembatan varol,
yang di atas medula oblongata
#5
  • Pengontrolan gerakan & kedudukan
  • Mencegah kontraksi yang berlebihan
  • Menghubungkan otak belakang & depan
Otak Depan
(diensefalon)
  • Talamus (#4)
    • Tempat diteruskannya impulse ke daerah sensorik
  • Hipotalamus (#3)
    • Ada pituitary gland
    • Menyeimbangkan kondisi (homeostatis)
    • Jika tidak balance –> sakit
Otak Besar
(serebrum, telensefalon)
  • Rasional, analitik, otak kanan-otak kiri
  • Memori
  • Intelejensa
  • Kepribadian
  • Daerah:
    • Sensorik: menerima impuls
    • Motorik: mengirimkan impuls ke otot lurik
    • Asosiasi: mengintegrasikan, mengkoordinasikan,
      menyimpan info sebelum memutuskan untuk
      mengirimkannya ke daerah motorik
Sumsum Tulang Belakang
  • Pusat gerak refleks
  • Penghantar impuls sensorik
  • Pembawa impuls motorik
Meninges
  • D-A-P
  • Dura mater
  • Arachnoid
  • Plamater

PNS

Terdiri dari 2 sistem:

  • Somatik (sadar)
  • Otonom (tidak sadar)

Somatik

002 - Cranial_nervesSource

  • Sistem saraf kepala (kranial)
    • 12 pasang saraf
      • Sensorik: I, II, VIII
      • Motorik: III, IV, VI, XI, XII
      • Gabungan sensorik & motorik: V, VII, IX, X
  • Sistem saraf tulang belakang (spinal)
    • 31 pasang saraf
      • Leher: 8
      • Punggung: 12
      • Pinggang: 5
      • Pinggul: 5
      • Ekor: 1

Otonom

Tujuan: homeostatis (balance)

Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic

  • Stress
    • Increasing heart rate
    • Dilating pupils
    • Adrenaline
    • Lowering blood flow to
      digestion & reproductive
      systems
  • Relax
    • Lowering heart rate
    • Increase blood flow to
      reproductive organs
    • Mouth produces saliva
    • Excretion system

Sources:

  • Crash Course Biology (The Muscular System, The Nervous System)
  • Aryulina, Dina, dkk. 2010. Biology for Senior High School Grade XI Semester 1. Jakarta: Esis
  • Aryulina, Dina, dkk. 2010. Biology for Senior High School Grade XI Semester 2. Jakarta: Esis

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